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            常用句型語法寶典(四)

            2012-10-15  MouseHappy

            I have not + V-ed ...

            結構︰主詞+have/has+not+過去分詞+…。

            說明︰在<助動詞> have(has)的后面加“not”形成<現在完成式>的否定式。

                I have not heard from John for a long time.  我好久沒有收到約翰的來信了。

                She has not read today’s newspaper.  她還沒有看今天的報紙。

                They have not seen that movie on television.  他們還沒看過電視上的那部影片。

            There is no + N/V-ing ...

            結構︰There+be+no/not a/not any+名詞/動名詞(+副詞)

            說明︰這是表示存在的<否定句>型。否定詞用 no,也可用 not a 或 not any。not a 后面跟單數<名詞>;not any 跟復數<名詞>;no 后面的<名詞>單復數都可以。其中以 not a 所表示的否定<語氣>較強。如果帶有各種<副詞>,通常是地點<副詞>置于<時間副詞>的前面。

                There was nothing to buy in the store. There were no shirts, no vests, no jeans, and no pajamas. 那家商店里沒什么可買的。那里沒有襯衫,沒有背心,沒有牛仔褲,也沒有睡衣。

                There was not a moment to be lost.  分秒必爭。

                There is no denying the fact.   事實決不能否認。

                (There must be) No talking in here!   這兒不許講話。

                No smoking (within these walls)!  (場內)禁煙!

            There is no such + N

            結構︰There is no such+名詞

            說明︰此句型意為“沒有這樣的…”。

                There was no such club.  沒有這樣的俱樂部。

                There is no such man in our neighborhood.   在我們的鄰近沒有這樣的人。

                There is no such book as you want.   沒有像你所要的這種書。

            I am away from ...

            結構︰用肯定的陳述句形式來表達否定意義

            說明︰這主要是通過某些含有否定意義的詞匯來表示,如:off,out of,far from,away from, refuse 等,以及含有否定意義的詞綴的詞匯,如:dislike,unhappy,impossible 等。

                Mr. Jones is away from Taipei.   瓊斯先生已不在臺北。

                The project is far from perfect.  這項企劃很不完美。

                The manager is out of the office.  經理不在辦公室。

                They shun personal fame and gains.他們不計個人名利。(shun 原義為“避開”,引伸為“不要”)

                I dislike this student very much.  我頂討厭這個學生。

            ... far from ...

            結構︰... far from ...

            說明︰表“離…很遠”,后面接<名詞>做<受詞>;但 far from 可置于句首做<介系詞>,表“非但不…”,以<動名詞>做<受詞>;若置于 be <動詞>之后,則視為<副詞>,表“一點也不”,后面接<名詞>或<形容詞>。

                It is far from my intention to do such a thing.   我根本不想做這種事。

                I live far away from my school.  我住的地方離學校很遠。

                Far from working hard, he played around.  他非但不用功,反而到處鬼混。

                Far from accepting my advice, he went back on me.他非但不接受我的勸告,反而背叛了我。

                His explanation was far from satisfactory.  他的解釋一點也不令人滿意。

                I am far from blaming him.  我并不是在責備他。

                Far from losing money, he can hardly count his profits.

            他哪里是在賠錢,他幾乎無法計算其利潤呢!

                He is far from well.   他并不健康。

                It is far from the truth.   這哪里是事實。

            It is free form + N ...

            結構︰主詞+be 動詞+free from+名詞…

            說明︰此句型意為“沒有…”。本<詞組>須置于 be <動詞>之后,等于 without,以<名詞>做其<受詞>。

                He leads a life (which is) free from care.  他過著無憂無慮的生活。

                The hill is completely free from trees.  這個山丘上一棵樹也沒有。

                This city is free from thieves.  這個城市沒有盜賊。

                When her son returned she was at last free from anxiety.她兒子回來了,她總算解除了憂慮。

            I told him not to go.

            結構︰…not+非述語成分

            說明︰本<句型>的述語是肯定形式,not 加在句中其他成分上,可以否定<主詞>、<受詞>或<副詞>。 not 用以否定非述語成分,主要是用在兩種情形:一是不這樣安排 not,就會改變句子的意義;二是用于含有對比的敘述中。

                I told him not to go.  我告訴了他,叫他不要去。

                He goes to school not by bus, but on foot.  他去上學不是乘公共汽車,而是走路去的。

                Not a contract was to be signed.  連一個合同也沒簽。

                The teacher told him not to make such a mistake again. 老師叫他不要再犯這樣的錯誤。

                I went to see my friend off, not to meet him.  我是去送朋友,不是去接他。

                He felt sorry for not coming to the meeting on time.  他為沒有準時到會感到很抱歉。

            No + N + V ...

            結構︰No+單數名詞+肯定式動詞…

            說明︰此句型意為“沒有一…”。此<句型>“No+<名詞>”的 No 是“Not a(沒有一個)”之意,有時“No+<名詞>”是“No+other+<名詞>”之意。

                No animal of the horoscope is considered dumb or ugly or evil.

                  天宮圖上的動物沒有一種被認為是愚笨的或丑陋的或邪惡的。

                No student in this school is from the southern part of Taiwan.

                  這個學校沒有一個學生是來自南臺灣的。

                No grammar book is more popular than this one with senior high school students.

                  沒有(別的)一本文法書比這一本更受高中生的歡迎。

            I don’t think ...

            結構︰主詞+否定式動詞+副詞/that-子句

            說明︰如果否定的是后面的<副詞>或<子句>,通常是將否定詞提前移到述語中去,其意義仍然是表示否定后面的部分。像 I think,I believe,I suppose,I feel,I see 等詞語引出否定的<子句>時,大多是將 not 放在述語<動詞>部分。在口語中,尤其是這樣。

                I don’t think it’s right to make such a hasty decision.我認為如此倉促地做出決定是不正確的。

                I don’t think this is worth trying.  我看這是不值得一試的。

                Many people don’t think it is dangerous to go mountain climbing.很多人認為爬山并不危險。

                I still don’t see the point you emphasized.  我仍然弄不清楚你所強調的要點。

                I don’t see any point of playing video games all day.我看不出整天打電動玩具有什么意義。

                I don’t believe that he will come tonight.  我認為他今晚不會來。

                I’m not feeling very well today, I can’t attend the meeting.

                  我今天感到不怎么舒服,我不能參加會議了。

                He did not come here in order to attend the meeting.  他來這里決不是要參加會議的。

            All is not ...

            結構︰all/both/every…+not…

            說明︰此句型意為“并非一切…都是”。含有全體意義的<代名詞>和<副詞>如 all,every(及其派生詞), both,always,altogether,entirely,wholly 等,用于否定結構時不是表示全部被否定,而只表示其中的一部分被否定。也可將 not 置于 all,every 等詞的前面。

                All is not gold that glitters. (=All that glitters is not gold.)  閃閃發光者并非都是金子。

                Not all the students study hard.  并非所有的學生都用功念書。

                I don’t know all of them.  我并不都認識他們。

                The rich are not always happy.  富人未必一定幸福。

                A kind man is not always patient.  心腸好的人未必總是有耐心。

                His deeds do not always agree with his words.  他的言行并非總是一致。

                Nobody can always have good luck.  沒有人始終能夠有好運。

                A wise man doesn’t know everything.  智者并非每一件事都懂。

                Every one cannot become businessman.  不是所有的人都能成為商人。

                Such a product is not found everywhere.  這樣的產品不是隨處可以找到的。

                Not both of his sisters agree to his suggestion.  他兩個姊姊并未都同意他的提議。

                Both items are not fashionable.  兩個品種并不都很時髦。

                I don’t like both of them.  他們兩人我并不都喜歡。

                Not both the artists have a keen eye for beauty.  這兩位藝術家并非都有審美的眼光。

                Not both Peter and John enjoy music.  并非彼得與約翰都喜歡音樂。

                He doesn’t wholly agree to the plan.  他并不完全同意這項計劃。

            ... not necessarily ...

            結構︰... not necessarily ...

            說明︰此句型意為“未必是…”。not necessary 是"不必要的"。

                The name of a restaurant won’t necessarily tell you much about the food it serves.

                餐廳的名字未必能告訴你很多它所供應的食物。

                A good book does not necessarily sell well.  好書未必暢銷。

                This is not necessarily the best.  這未必是最好的。

                Learned men are not necessarily wise.  博學者未必都是聰明的。

                A hero is not necessarily one who has done brave things. 英雄未必是做過勇敢之事的人。

                The strongest man does not necessarily live the longest.  最強壯的人未必活得最久。

            No/none ... + V ...

            結構︰no/none 等否定詞+肯定式動詞…

            說明︰本<句型>表示全體否定。否定詞 no,none,nobody,nothing,nowhere,nohow,neither, never 等本身就是絕對的否定意義,<動詞>雖是肯定形式,但整個句子仍表達否定的意義,常譯做“任何…都不”,“大家都不…”,“全都沒有…”,“任何時候都不…”,“無論何處都不…”等。這些否定詞引導的詞組大多做<主詞>,也可做<受詞>和<副詞>。

                No buyers can buy this sort of product.  任何買主都不能購買這種產品。

                Neither of my parents enjoys music.   我父母都不喜歡音樂。

                I like neither of the designs. (=I don’t like either of the designs.)這兩個花樣我都不喜歡。

                None of the three is a good student (are good students).  這三人都不是好學生。

                Nothing worth doing is easy.  值得做的事沒有容易做的。

                Nothing is impossible to a willing mind.  有志的人沒有做不到的事。

                Nothing is changeless.  沒有一成不變的東西。

                Nobody is without faults.  沒有人是沒有缺點的。

                He never gets up early.   他從未早起過。

                The book is nowhere to be had.  這本書什么地方都買不到。

            All + V + un...

            結構︰all/both/every 等+肯定式動詞+含否定意義的單詞…

            說明︰此句型意為“一切…都不”。all,every 等詞在本句型中表示全部否定,其否定意義不是通過述語 <動詞>,而是通過句子其他成分中含有否定意義的單詞表達出來的。

                All goods here are unsaleable.  這里的一切貨物都是賣不出去的。

                All his plan came to nothing. 他的一切計劃都沒有實現。

                Every selling plan made by him is impossible of execution.

                  他所做的一切銷售計劃都是不能實現的。

                We all disbelieved what he promised.  對于他的許諾我們全都不相信。

                Their quarrels about the trivia are always interminable. 他們對瑣事的爭吵總是沒完沒了。

            ... not ..., neither ...

            結構︰(前句)否定句,+(后句)nor/neither+肯定式動詞+主詞…

            說明︰后句是補充的否定,因為以 no,neither 開頭,所以要采用倒裝句構。

                She has no experience in typing, nor does the skill interest her.

                  她沒有打字經驗,那種技術也引不起她的興趣。

                You can’t cancel the contract, nor can I, nor can anybody else.

                  你不能撤約,我也不能,任何人都不能。

                The first isn’t good, and neither is the second.  第一個不是好的,第二個也不好。

                You did not see the teacher, neither did I.  你沒有看見老師,我也沒有。

            ... not ... still ...

            結構︰主詞+否定式動詞…+much less/still less+名詞詞組/子句

            說明︰much less 或 still less 引導的<詞組>或<子句>,表示一種追加的否定。less 是由 little 的否定意義而來的,所以只能用于<否定句>,一般譯做“更無;更不”。

            She cannot buy daily necessities, much less luxuries.

            她連生活必需品都不能買,更不用說奢侈品。

                He can hardly run a mile, much less the marathon.他連一哩都跑不了,更不用說馬拉松了。

                I did not even see him, still less talk with him.我看也沒看見他,更不用說跟他談過話了。

            ..., to say nothing of ...

            結構︰主詞+否定式動詞…;+to say nothing of+名詞(子句)

            說明︰此句型意為“更不用說;更不待言”。to say nothing of 可用 not to speak of,not to mention等代替。

                He does not know English, to say nothing of German or French.

                  他不懂英文,更不要說德文和法文了。

                At that time they could not produce ordinary garments, not to speak of high-grade ones.

                  那時他們連普通衣服都不能生產,更不要說高級的了。

                We can’t afford a car, not to mention the fact that we have no garage.

                  我們買不起汽車,沒有車庫的事就更不必說了。

            It hardly/scarcely + V ...

            結構︰主詞+hardly/scarcely+動詞…

            說明︰此句型意為“…幾乎不…”。這是通過 hardly 等半否定詞表示的<否定句>。此類半否定詞還有: scarcely,seldom,little,few,rarely 等。

                It hardly (scarcely) matters.   沒有什么關系。

                I have hardly ever been out of this city.  我幾乎未曾離開過這個城市。

                Justice was hardly done but someone complained (=without someone’s complaining).

                  要達到沒有人認為不公平的公平是很難的。

                We seldom buy this sort of goods.   我們很少買這種貨。

                Seldom seen, soon forgotten.   少見則易忘;別久則情疏。

                Little remains to be talked about.   簡直沒什么可談的了。

            ... seldom or never ...

            結構︰…seldom or never…

            說明︰此句型意為“幾乎不…;簡直不…”。也可用“little or nothing”。

                She seldom or never reads a book.   她簡直不看書。

                People seldom or never bought silk garments a few years ago.

                  幾年前,人們幾乎是不買絲綢服裝的。

                I saw little or nothing of him after graduation.  畢業后我幾乎沒有看見過他。

                She bought little or nothing in this shop.  她在這家店里幾乎沒買過東西。

            I can’t ...

            結構︰主詞+否定式動詞…+否定詞/含否定意義的詞…

            說明︰此句型意為“無…不…;沒有…不…”。這是雙重<否定句>型。也可譯做肯定句。本<句型>的<動詞>是否定式,所以<主詞>不能用否定<代名詞>。英語的習慣用法是否定<代名詞>后面不能再用否定式<動詞>。

                You can’t make something out of nothing. 巧婦難為無米之炊。

                What’s done cannot be undone.  已經做了的事后悔也無用。

                He has never dissatisfied with this plan.  他從來沒有對計劃表示不滿。

            No one wanted to + V ...

            結構︰No one(Nobody)+ wanted(liked)to+原形動詞…。

            說明︰此句型意為“沒有人想要(喜歡)…”。nobody(無一人)與 no one(無一人)同義,僅限用于“人”,但是 nobody 更具口語化;nobody(或 no one)如當<主詞>,后面接單數<動詞>。

                No one wanted to buy small oranges. 沒有人想買小柳橙。

                No one liked to have trouble.  沒有人想碰到麻煩。

                No one wanted to listen to a madman.  沒有人想聽瘋子講話。

            ... no ... without + N

            結構︰…never/not/no…+without+名詞/動名詞

            說明︰此句型意為“每…必然…;沒有…就沒有…”。這是雙重<否定句>。有時譯成“沒有…而不…”;“每一次…都…”。

                I cannot see this picture without thinking of my father.看到這幅畫使我不能不想起我父親。

                I never see him without feeling like crying.  我每次見到他就想哭。

                He never helps me without trying to take advantage of me.  他每次幫我都想占我便宜。

                He never visits me without asking about our old friends.

                  他每次來訪必然問起我們昔日的朋友。

                The president of their company never makes a promise without intending to keep it.

                  他們公司的董事長每次許諾必然會遵守諾言。

                He never went to the bookstore without buying some books.

                  他沒有一次到書店而不買一些書。

                They never met without smiling at each other.  他們每一次相遇都彼此微笑。

                I never speak English without making mistakes.   我沒有一次說英語而不犯錯的。

                Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm.

                  沒有一件偉大的事情可以達成而沒有熱誠。

                No gains without pains.  不勞則無獲。

                No one can succeed without working hard. 沒有人能夠成功而不努力。

                No one can live without breathing.  沒有一個人可以不呼吸而生存。

                No prisoner escaped from the prison without being seen.

                  沒有一個囚犯逃離這個監獄而不被看到。

            never ... but ...

            結構︰never…+but+主詞+動詞

            說明︰此句型意為“每…必然…”。but 在此是<連接詞>,引導<副詞子句>。本句構的 but 相當于 if…not…。

                It never rains but it pours.  一下雨就傾盆而降--禍不單行。

                I never look at the stars but I think how little I am.我每次看星星必然會想自己是多么渺小。

                She never reads a book but she goes to sleep.  她一看書就想睡覺。

                He never goes on a vacation but he takes his pet dog.  他每次度假都會帶他的狗去。

                I never see him but I am happy.  我看到他就高興。

            He never goes out but he drops in at that bookstore.

            他每次外出都會順道去那家書店待一會兒。

            I never fail to + V ...

            結構︰主詞+never fail to+原形動詞

            說明︰此句型意為“必定會…;一定會…”。fail 因包含“失敗”的否定意義,故也屬雙重否定。

                She never fails to write to her parents every month. 她每個月一定寫信給她的父母親。

                He never failed to send the ambassador a report each week. 他每個禮拜必送報告給大使。

                A good teacher never fails to try his best to answer his students.

                  一個好老師總是盡力為學生解答。

                He is eloquent and humorous as well. What he says never fails to please us.

                  他口才好又幽默,他所說的一定能使我們高興。

            I cannot but + V ...

            結構︰主詞+cannot+but/choose but/help but+原形動詞

            說明︰此句型意為“不得不…”。but 后只能跟原形<動詞>。

                I cannot but admire his wise plan.  我不得不贊美他的計劃。

                They cannot (choose) but admit that our requirement is reasonable.

                  他們不得不承認我們的要求是合理的。

                I could not (help) but laugh.  我不禁笑出來。

            It is not uncommon for ...

            結構︰It is not uncommon for+名詞+to-不定詞…

            說明︰此句型意為“…并非不常見”。not uncommon 是雙重否定,表肯定。it 是虛<主詞>。

                It is not uncommon for parents to put a newborn in a separate room.

                  父母把新生兒放在分隔的房間并非不常見。

                It is not uncommon for women to smoke in public.  婦女在大眾面前抽煙并非不常見。

                It is not uncommon for people to jaywalk. 人們任意穿越馬路并非不常見。

            I am anything but ...

            結構︰主詞+be 動詞+anything but+名詞/形容詞…

            說明︰此句型意為“絕非…”。等于 far from。后面跟<名詞>或<形容詞>做 be <動詞>的<補語>。

                He is anything but a scholar.  他絕非學者。

                He is anything but diligent.  他一點也不勤奮。

                The man was anything but rich.  這人絕不是個富翁。

                He was anything but a hero.  他絕不是一個英雄。

                It is anything but complete.  這并未完成。

                Climbing Mt. Everest is anything but a pleasure trip. 登圣母峰絕不是一次輕松的旅途。

                His visit to Paris was anything but a success.  他的巴黎之行根本不成功。

            I am in no way ...

            結構︰主詞+動詞+含否定意義的詞組(in no way/by no means 等)…

            說明︰此類<詞組>有 in no way,by no means,in no wise,on no account 等,譯為“決不;毫不”。如因強調而置于句首,則要采用倒裝句構。

                I am in no way to blame.  我一點也沒錯。

                It is by no means easy to satisfy everyone.  要滿足每一個人絕非易事。

            He will in no wise give up any chances to get a better job.

            他不會放棄任何機會以獲得一份好工作。

                On no account (do you) forget to lock the door.  千萬別忘了鎖門。

            I am not in the least ...

            結構︰主詞+be 動詞+not+in the least…

            說明︰此句型意為“一點也不…”。

                I am not in the least tired.   我一點也不疲倦。

                He is not in the least kind.   他心腸一點都不好。

                I was not surprised in the least.   我一點也不感到驚訝。

                The shop assistant was not in the least afraid of the trouble.  那店員一點也不怕麻煩。

            I am no + N ...

            結構︰... no+名詞…

            說明︰no 通常當形容詞,后面須接名詞;no的后面不可緊接a,an,any,many,much等字。

                We feel that life is no laughing matter.   我們覺得人生絕非是開玩笑的事情。

                Mr. Chen used no (didn’t use any) chemicals on his fruit.  陳先生的水果不使用農藥。

                Tony used no reference books in class.   托尼上課時不使用參考書。

                It is no joke.   這絕非是開玩笑。

                This is no fact.   這絕非是事實。

                That’s no lie!   那絕不是謊話!

                He is no writer.   他絕不是作家。

                Tom is no coward.   湯姆絕不是懦夫。

            no + N + in the world ...

            結構︰…否定詞+名詞+in the world/on earth…

            說明︰此<句型>中否定詞與<名詞>結合的<詞組>可以是<主詞>,也可以是<受詞>或其他句子成分;in the world,on earth,all 等大范圍詞語一般作<形容詞>或<副詞>用。

                There will be no difficulty in the world that they cannot overcome.

                  世界上任何困難他們都可以克服。

                This is a market condition no force on earth can change.這一市場情況任何力量也改變不了。

                He was not all confused.   他一點兒也不胡涂。

                It is of no value at all.   那是毫無價值的。

                I’m the world’s worst businessman.   我最不會做生意。

            I am the last man to ...

            結構︰主詞+be 動詞+the last+名詞+to-不定詞/子句

            說明︰此句型意為“絕不可能是…;最不像是…”。<子句>是以 that 做<關系代名詞>所引導的<形容詞子句>。

                A plane crash was the last thing that we had expected. 我們絕對沒有想到飛機會出事。

                This is the last place where I expected to meet you.  我絕沒想到會在這里遇見你。

                He is the last man to do such a thing.  他絕不可能會做這種事。

                Mick is the last man to break his word.  邁克絕不是不守承諾的人。

                He is the last man (that) I want to see now.  他是我現在最不愿見到的人。

                You were the last man (that) I had dreamed of meeting here.

                  那天我萬萬沒有料到會在這里遇到你。

                He is the last man to accept a bribe.  他絕不像是會接受賄賂的人。

            I cannot ... too ...

            結構︰cannot…too+形容詞/副詞

            說明︰此句型意為“再…也不為過;愈…愈好”。也可用“cannot+<動詞>+too much”或“cannot…+too many/much+<可數名詞>/<不可數名詞>”。

                You cannot be too careful when driving a car.  開車時愈小心愈好。

                I cannot thank enough for your kindness.  我再怎么感謝你的好意也不為過。

                We cannot emphasize too much the importance of learning English.

                  我們再怎樣強調學英文的重要性也不為過。

                It is wrong to think that one cannot make too many friends.

                  認為一個人交愈多朋友愈好是錯的。

                He thinks it right that one cannot make too much money.他認為一個人賺再多的錢也不為過。

                You cannot study too hard.  你愈用功愈好。

                One cannot be too careful in choosing friends.  擇友愈謹慎愈好。

                You cannot quit smoking too soon.  你愈早戒煙愈好。

            too + ADJ + for ...

            結構︰too+形容詞+for+(代)名詞

            說明︰此句型意為“太…而不適宜/而不能…"。相當于“too+<形容詞>+to-<不定詞>”。

                It is still too cold for farming.  氣候還是太冷而不適宜農耕。

                You are too young for marriage. 你太年輕了,還不能結婚。

                The scenery is too beautiful for words. 風景優美,非文字所能形容。

                The book is too difficult for most senior high school students.

                  這本書太難而不適合大多數的高中生。

            Servings in restaurants are too large for many people.

            餐廳里端出來的食物對許多人來說量是太多了。

                The skirt is too long for you.  這條裙子對你來說是太長了。

                This room is too large for us.  對我們而言,這間屋子太大了。

                He is too tired to walk anymore.  他累得再也走不動了。

                She walked too slowly to catch up with us.  她走得太慢,跟不上我們。

            ... no exception ...

            結構︰主詞+be 動詞+no exception

            說明︰此句型意為“…也不例外”。

                Almost every language in the world has dialects and American English is no exception.

                  世界上幾乎每種語言都有方言,美國話也不例外。

                The poor need love and the rich are no exception. 貧窮的人需要愛,有錢的人也不例外。

                Plants can not live without the sun and animals are no exception.

                  植物沒有太陽不能活,動物也不例外。

            I have no idea ...

            結構︰主詞+have no idea…

            說明︰此句型意為“不知道…”。

                We have no idea how the birds find their way. 我們不知道這些鳥如何找到它們的路。

                I have no idea why he resigned his post. 我不知道他為何辭去他的職務。

                We have no idea how to persuade him to give up the idea.

                  我們不知道如何說服他放棄這個念頭。

            I care nothing about ...

            結構︰主詞+care nothing about…

            說明︰此句型意為“一點也不關心…;毫不在乎…”。

                My friends were all boys who cared nothing about studying.

                  我的朋友都是男生,他們一點也不關心讀書。

                Do you really care nothing about your future?  你真的一點也不關心你的將來?

                I cared nothing about what they said of me. 我毫不在乎他們對我怎么說。

            I do not care what ...

            結構︰主詞+do not care+疑問詞(what/whether/…)+主詞+動詞

            說明︰此句型意為“…不在乎…”。

                He does not care whether he wins or loses.  他不在乎是否他贏或輸。

                I do not care what you will say about me.  我不在乎你們會說我什么。

                She does not care whether you like her or not.  她不在乎你是否喜歡她。

            I can’t bear to ...

            結構︰主詞+can’t bear+to-不定詞/動名詞

            說明︰此句型意為“忍受不了/不忍…”。bear 后可跟<不定詞>或<動名詞>。

                His suspense became so great that he couldn’t bear to look out the window.

                  他的疑慮變得這樣大,所以他忍受不了往窗外看。

                I can’t bear to see him treated like that.  我不忍見到他受到那樣的對待。

                I can’t bear being called “Fool”.  我忍受不了被叫做“傻瓜”。

            ... make no sense ...

            結構︰主詞+make no/much/little sense…

            說明︰此句型意為“…有(沒有/很有/很少有)意義”。通常用于否定或疑問。

                It didn’t make much sense to Galileo to have different rules for motion on earth and in space.

                  對伽利略來說,地球上和太空中有不同的運動法則是沒有多大意義。

                His argument does not make sense.  他的爭論沒有意義。

                Does it make sense to let children play with matches?  讓小孩玩火柴有意義嗎?

            ... and ...

            結構︰主詞+動詞…+and+動詞…。

            說明︰and 當“和;并且;而”解,它常含有“結果”的意味;由 and 所連接的兩個單字,須用相同的詞性。

                They can visit many places and see many things.他們可以參觀許多地方并且看到許多事物。

                You can stay at home and watch TV.   你可以待在家里并且看電視。

                We will get up early and do some housework.  我們將早起并且做點家務。

            ... or ...

            結構︰主詞+動詞…+or+動詞+…。

            說明︰or 當“或者”解,含有“選擇”的意味;由 or 所連接的兩個單字,須用“相同的詞性”。

                They will go to the zoo or play volleyball.  他們要去動物園或打排球。

                He can drive his car to work or go by bus.  他可以自己駕車上班或乘公交車。

                We will play sports or go on a picnic.  我們將做戶外運動或去野餐。

            ... but ...

            結構︰主詞+動詞…,+but+主詞+動詞+…。

            說明︰but 當“但是;然而”解,它含有“相反;對比”的意味;由 but 所連接的兩個單字須用“相同的詞性”。

                I went to bed late, but I got up early.  我晚睡但是早起。

                It doesn’t rain a lot in fall, but it rains a lot in spring. 秋天不下很多雨,但春天下很多雨。

                He caught a cold yesterday, but he went to school today.他昨天得了感冒,但今天去上學了。

            A+Positive,but B+Negative

            結構︰A(主詞)+肯定(或否定)…,but+B(主詞)+否定(或肯定)…。

            說明︰此句型意為“A…,但是 B 不…(或:A 不…,但是 B…)”。but 是<連接詞>,用于表示“相反”或“對比”,故 but 可連接一個肯定<子句>與一個否定<子句>;本句型中 <助動詞>要與一般<動詞>的<時態>相一致。

                Mr. Collins was tired, but Mr. Smith wasn’t.  柯林斯先生累了,但是史密斯先生不累。

                It won’t hurt you, but chemicals will. 它不會傷害你,但是農藥會。

                Mr. Chen knows this, but other people don’t.  陳先生知道這件事,但是別人不知道。

                He made more money, but I didn’t.  他賺了更多的錢,但是我沒有。

                My sister eats natural foods every day, but I don’t.我妹妹每天都吃天然食品,但是我不吃。

            ... when/as/while ...

            結構︰主要子句+when/as/while+子句

            說明︰此句型意為“當…時”。when 引導的<子句>,不僅說明一般時間,而且可以表示與<主要子句>同時或提前的動作時間。兩個<動詞>常用現在式。as 所表示的同時意義更突出一些,語意更強一些;while 多指動作的過程,時間范圍較大一些。<連接詞> while 后面的<主詞>,如果與<主要子句>的<主詞>相同時,while 后面的<主詞>與 be <動詞>可以省略,如例句8。

                When I got there, they were having a negotiation.  我到那里時,他們正談判。

                When I called, Tom was having dinner.  當我打電話時,湯姆正在吃晚飯。

                When I met Jill, she was talking to a young man.當我遇到吉爾時,她正在和一個年輕人說話。

                When I entered the room, everyone was laughing loudly.

                  當我走進房間時,每個人都在大聲地笑。

                When you walk into the room, the lights turn on by themselves.

                  每當你走入這房間,電燈自己就打開。

                The customer laughed as he spoke.  客戶邊談邊笑。

                Work while you work, and rest while you rest. 工作的時候工作,休息的時候休息。

                While she was reading in the room (=While reading in the room), she heard John call her.

                  當她在房間里看書時,她聽見約翰在叫她。

            ... before/after ...

            結構︰主要子句+before/after+子句

            說明︰此句型意為“…之前/之后”。<主要子句>的動作發生在<子句>動作之前或之后。before 引導的<子句>不可用否定式。

                You must send some sample to the customer before you go abroad.

                  在你出國之前,應該先寄給客戶一些樣品。

                After you think it over, please let me know by fax. 你仔細考慮過之后,請用傳真相告。

                What do you want to do after you have concluded this transaction?

                  這筆生意成交之后你想做什么?

            ... because/as/since ...

            結構︰主要子句+because/as/since+子句

            說明︰此句型意為“…因為…”。because 作“因為”解釋,是<連接詞>,它后面所引導的<子句>,叫做“<從屬子句>”。<主要子句>前切不可加 so;<從屬子句>可放在<主要子句>后,但為了強調,可放在<主要子句>前。

                I didn’t like it because it was noisy.  我不喜歡它因為很吵鬧。

                His boss looked at him coldly because he made several big mistakes.

                  他的老板冷漠地看著他因為他犯了幾個大錯誤。

            John lives happily because he uses his time well to study.

            約翰生活得快樂因為他善用他的時間學習。

                As rain has fallen, the goods cannot be shipped.   因為下了雨,貨物不能裝運了。

                Since you insist, I must amend the letter of credit. 既然你堅持,我就只好修改信用證。

            ... in that ...

            結構︰主要子句+in that/seeing(that)/considering(that)+子句

            說明︰此句型意為“…因為…”。注意,in that 中的 that 不能省去。

                He didn’t attend the negotiation in that he was ill.  他因為有病,沒有參加談判。

                I’d like to accept this item, seeing (that) the price is reasonable.

                  我愿意接受此品種,因為價格合理。

                We agree to postpone the shipping date, considering (that) there is no steamer recently.

                  由于(考慮到)最近無船,我們同意推遲裝期。

            ..., so ...

            結構︰前句,+so/therefore/thus/hence+后句

            說明︰此句型意為“…所以…”。so 是正式的<連接詞>,其他都是<副詞>作<連接詞>用。

                He is ill, so he cannot attend the negotiation.  他病了,所以他不能來參加談判。

                He was very tired, and therefore he didn’t give the market report.

                  他非常疲倦,所以沒能作市場報告。

                It was already rather late, thus we decide to urge the customer.

                  已經相當晚了,所以我們決定催促客戶。

            ... and/or/or else ...

            結構︰祈使句+and/or/or else…

            說明︰and 譯成“那么”,用于表一致的概念;or 譯成“否則”,用于表相反的概念。“命令句+ and”等于“If ...”,意為“得…,這么一來才能…”;“命令句+or”等于“Unless ...”,意為“得…要不然…”;or 也可用 or else 取代。

                Study hard, and you’ll pass the exam.   要用功,那么你才會考及格。

                Study hard, or you’ll fail (in) the exam.   要用功,否則你會考不及格。

                Make haste, and you’ll be in time for class.   動作快一點,你才趕得及上課。

                Make haste, or you’ll miss the first train.  快一點,要不然就趕不上第一班火車了。

                Stop smoking now, or else your health will be ruined.別再抽煙了,否則你會毀了自己的健康。

            one more N, and ...

            結構︰數量名詞(one,two,three…)+more+名詞,+and…

            說明︰此句型意為“再…,就…”。and 連接<主要子句>。

                One more effort, and you will get to the top.  再加點油,你就可以到達頂端了。

                Two more days, and I can finish the work.  再過兩天,我就能完成這份工作。

                One more step, and you’ll be killed.  再走一步,你就會沒命。

                A few more days, and the company will be on the verge of bankruptcy.

                  再過幾天,這家公司就將瀕臨破產的邊緣。

            There be N and N

            結構︰There+be+名詞+and+名詞

            說明︰此句型意為“有各色各樣的…”。<名詞>通常用復數。

                There’s always weather and weather.  老是有各種各樣的天氣。

                There are men and men.  有各式各樣的男人。

                There are actors and actors.  有各式各樣的演員。

            A + be ..., and B ...

            結構︰主詞1+be+…,and+主詞2+(be)…

            說明︰<主詞>2之后的 be <動詞>往往省略。

                There midnight’s all a glimmer and noon (is) a purple glow.

                  那兒午夜浮光微搖,中午紫光爭耀。

                His critics are many and his admirers (are) few. 他的批評者多,而贊美者少。

                The girls are skating and the boys (are) watching. 這些女孩在溜冰,而這些男孩在觀看。

            It is true ..., but ...

            結構︰It is true that…,but…

            說明︰此句型意為“…是事實,但…”。but 前后所連接的部分或<子句>意義相反或成為對比。本<句型>與 though <子句>所表現的意思完全相同。也可用“Indeed (that) ..., but ...”。

                It is true that these changes take a long time, but not as long as we might expect.

                  這些變化需要一些長的時間是事實,但不像我們所可能預期的那樣久。

                It is true that he stole the bicycle, but he is not so bad as you might think.

                  他偷腳踏車是事實,但他并不像你所想的那樣壞。

                It is true that he is rich, but he must know money is not everything.

                  他有錢是事實,但他必須知道錢不是一切。

                It is true that Japan is a beautiful country, but its big cities are lately polluted.

                  日本的確是個美麗的國家,但最近日本的大都市已被污染。

                Indeed he has a solemn face, but he is very humorous at heart.

                  他的確有一副嚴肅的臉孔,但內心卻是很富幽默感。

            no one ... but ...

            結構︰no one/every/who/what…+but…

            說明︰用在 no one,none,nobody,nothing,all,every,以及 who,what 等疑問詞之后的 but 的含義是“除…而外”,是<連接詞>,后接的<代名詞>可用主格或受格。

                No one replied but me.  除我而外沒有人回答。

                Nobody was late but you and me.  除了你我而外,沒有人遲到。

                Nothing but disaster would come from such a plan.此一計劃除了導致失敗而外將一無所獲。

                He did nothing but eat and sleep all day.  他整天吃飯、睡覺,什么事都不做。

                It is nothing but a joke.  這不過是個笑話而已。

                Mother thought of nothing but my coming home.  母親只想到我要回家的事。

                All the boys but one are here.  除了一個而外男孩子全都到了。

                Who but he would act such?  除了他還有誰會有這樣的行為?

                What should I find but an enormous spider!   我居然發現了一只巨大的蜘蛛!

                Who should come in but his first wife!  進來的居然是他的第一任太太!

            ... all but ...

            結構︰... all but ...

            說明︰后面跟<名詞>,but 相當于 except,表“除了…以外都”。若后面跟<形容詞>、<副詞>、<動詞>,則表“幾乎”的意思。

                He is the chairman of the committee in all but the name.

            除了沒掛名以外,實際上他就是委員會的主席。

                All but the morning star have disappeared.  除掉金星以外其他的星星全都消失了。

                The car all but ran over him.  車子幾乎把他攆過去。

                He was all but killed by the traffic accident.  他幾乎死于車過。

            ... not ... but ...

            結構︰主詞+動詞+not…but…

            說明︰此句型意為“不是…而是…”。“not ... but ...”為對等<連接詞詞組>,可連接對等的單字、<詞組>或<子句>;連接<主詞>時,<動詞>要隨最近的<主詞>做變化。

                They will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.

                  他們所受到的論斷不是他們的膚色,而是他們的品格的內涵。

                What I admire is not what you have, but what you are.

            我所羨慕的不是你所擁有的東西,而是你的為人。

                It is not your fault, but mine.  這不是你的過錯,而是我的過錯。

                Not I but he is responsible for it.  不是我,而是他該負責任。

                Not father but mother was present at the ceremony. 不是父親而是母親出席此一儀式。

                Not that I loved Caesar less, but that I loved Rome more.

                  不是我比較不喜歡西澤,而是我更喜歡羅馬。

                He regarded me not as his friend, but as the best man for the job.

                  他并非把我當朋友,而是當最適合這工作者。

            ... no other than ...

            結構︰主詞+be+no/none+other+than/but…

            說明︰此句型意為“…不是別人,正是…”。than 在此處并非連接<比較級>之用,而是當“除…外”解,but與 than 相當,也作“除外”解,后面跟強調的人。

                This is no other than my old friend, John.  這位不是別人,正是我的老朋友約翰。

                The young man sitting at the desk was none other than our new teacher.

                  坐在辦公桌那兒的那個年輕人正是我們新來的老師。

                The tall figure that you saw was none other than our manager.

                  你所見的那位身材魁梧的先生不是別人正是我們的經理。

                As a top manager, he should appoint none but people on their merit.

                  作為一位總經理,他應該任人為賢。

            ... nothing else than ...

            結構︰主詞+be+nothing+else than/less than/(else)but…

            說明︰此句型意為“…不是別的,而是…”。本<句型>強調的是物。

                His failure in this transaction was due to nothing else than his own carelessness.

                  他在這筆交易中的失利完全是由于他自己的粗心大意。

                The present market situation is nothing else than fine. 目前市場形勢是最好不過的了。

                What we expected is nothing less than a timely payment. 及時付款正是我們所盼望的。

                This transaction is nothing less than a miracle. 這筆交易完全是一個奇跡。

                What I need is nothing but a sample. 我需要的不過是一件樣品而已。

                His condition is nothing but a little discount. 他的條件不過是一點折讓。

            ... not so ... but ...

            結構︰…not+so/such+形容詞/副詞+but…

            說明︰此句型意為“還沒有到不能…的程度”,引申為“盡管…還是”。此處的 but 相當于“that ... not”。

                I am not such a fool but I can solve the problem.  我雖不才,還是能解決這一問題。

                The quality is not so poor but it is acceptable. 質量雖差,但仍能接受。

                He is not so sick but he can attend a class. 他盡管有病,還是可以上課。

            not only ... but also ...

            結構︰主詞+not merely/not only…but(also)…

            說明︰此句型意為“不僅/不但…而且…”。not only…but also 稱為“<對等連接詞>”,所連接的兩個單字,須用相同的詞性。如果連接兩個<動詞>時,前后的時式要一致;如用于連接兩個<主詞>時,重點在第二個<主詞>,因此<動詞>須與第二個<主詞>一致。若連接對等的<主要子句>,而由 not merely,not only 開頭,則要用倒裝形式。

                Mary not only cleaned the room but (also) washed the window.

                  瑪麗不但清掃房間而且也洗刷窗子。

                The hamburger not only smells good but (also) tastes delicious.

                  這只漢堡包不但氣味好聞而且味道好吃。

                He is famous not only for his talent but (also) for his kindness.

                  他不僅以才能出名,而且是出名的好心。

                Not only you but (also) I am to blame.  不僅你,連我都要受責難。

                Not only did the dog bark at him, but (it) bit him. 這只狗不但對他吠叫,而且咬了他。

                Not only is she beautiful, but she is (also) kind. 她不僅漂亮,而且善良。

                His job is not only to dispose of problems but (also) to meet unexpected challenges.

                  他的工作不僅要處理難題而且也要應付突來的挑戰。

            either ... or ...

            結構︰either ... or ...

            說明︰此句型意為“要不…就是…”。可連接對等的單字、<詞組>或<子句>;連接<主詞>時,<動詞>要隨最近的 <主詞>做變化。

                Can you speak either English or French?   你會說英語或法語嗎?

                Either you or he has made the mistake.  不是你,就是他弄錯了。

                Either he or I am to blame.  不是他就是我該受責備。

                Either you are wrong, or I am.  不是你錯,就是我錯了。

                Either your answer or mine is wrong.  不是你的答案錯了,就是我的錯了。

                Either we will find a supply, or we will make the goods.我們或是尋求供貨,或者自己制造。

                Tom is going to buy either a guitar or a piano.湯母不是要買一把吉他就是要買一架鋼琴。

            neither ... nor ...

            結構︰neither ... nor ...

            說明︰此句型意為“既非…也非…”。可連接對等的單字、<詞組>或<子句>;連接<主詞>時,<動詞>要隨最近的 <主詞>做變化。

                Neither he nor I was able to understand her.  既不是我也不是他能夠了解她。

                Neither you nor I am wrong.  你也好,我也好,都沒錯。

                In my opinion, neither you nor he has met the standard.在我看來,你跟他都沒有達到標準。

                I neither expressed surprise at the price nor attempted to accept it.

                  我對于這個價格既沒有表示驚異,也沒想接受。

                We are going to play neither basketball nor volleyball.我們既不將打籃球也不將打排球。

            both ... and ...

            結構︰both ... and ...

            說明︰此句型意為“二者皆;和”。這是對等<連接詞詞組>,可連接對等的單字、<詞組>和<子句>;若連接<主詞>時,<動詞>一定為復數形。

                I work both on sunny days and on rainy ones.  我風雨無阻地工作。

                That actress is both skillful and beautiful.  那位女演員演技精湛又長得漂亮。

                He is known both as a painter and as a statesman.  他是知名的畫家及政治家。

                He succeeded both because he was industrious and because he had many friends to help him.

                  他的成功是由于勤勉和許多朋友的幫助。

                Both he and I are satisfied with the result.  我和他對結果都很滿意。

                Helen ordered both fried chicken and salad in the fast-food restaurant.

                  海倫在快餐店里點了炸雞和色拉。

            ... as well as ...

            結構︰... as well as ...

            說明︰此句型意為“既…又…”。這是對等<連接詞詞組>,可連接對等的單字、<詞組>和<子句>;若連接<主詞>時,<動詞>要跟著第一個<主詞>做變化。

                She can speak Japanese as well as English.  她會說日語和英語。

                Obviously he is interested in music as well as (in) painting.顯然他對音樂和繪畫都有興趣。

                He succeeded because he was industrious as well as because he had many friends to help him.   他的成功是由于勤勉和許多朋友的幫助。

                He as well as I is satisfied with the result. 他和我都滿意這樣的結果。

            ... as well.

            結構︰主詞+動詞…as well

            說明︰此句型意為“…也是…”。as well 一般置于句尾。

                Often life is much slower outside the big cities, as is true in other countries as well.

                  大都市外面的生活步調往往是緩慢得多,這在其他國家也是真的那樣。

                She is not only good at mathematics, but she is interested in English as well.

                  她不但擅長數學,而且對英語也感到興趣。

                Tom is very unfriendly to me as well.  湯姆對我也很不友善。

            as soon as ...

            結構︰as soon as ...

            說明︰此句型意為“一…就…”。為<副詞><連接詞>,引導<副詞子句>,修飾<主要子句>。等于“no sooner ... than ...”或“hardly/scarcely…when/before…”。

                As soon as she arrived in the city, she phoned her friend.

            她一到這個城市,就給她的朋友打電話。

                As soon as I have time, I will call you up.  我一有空,就會打電話給你。

                Tell me as soon as you have finished.  你一完成就告訴我。

            no sooner ... than ...

            結構︰no sooner ... than ...

            說明︰此句型意為“一…就…”。為<副詞><連接詞>,引導,<副詞子句>,修飾<主要子句>。no sooner 為<否定副詞>,置于句首時,<主詞>與<助動詞>必須倒裝。

                He had no sooner come than she left.  他一來,她就離開。

                No sooner had I left the shop than a man came to me and asked me if my name was Peter.

                   我一離開商店,就有一位男士向我走來,問我是不是叫彼得。

                No sooner had he arrived than he fell sick.  他剛抵達就病倒了。

                I had no sooner gone out than it began to rain. 我剛走到外面就開始下雨了。

            hardly ... when ...

            結構︰hardly/scarcely ... when/before ...

            說明︰此句型意為“一…就…”。為<副詞><連接詞>,引導<副詞子句>,修飾<主要子句>。hardly,scarcely 為<否定副詞>,置于句首時,<主詞>與<助動詞>必須倒裝。

                John had hardly opened the door when his guests arrived. 約翰剛打開門他的客人就到了。

                Scarcely had I washed the car before the sky rumbled with thunder.

                  我剛洗車天空就打雷了。

                Hardly had I gone out of the hotel when I met my friend.我剛走出飯店就遇見了我的朋友。

                Scarcely had she heard the sad story when she burst out crying.

                  她一聽到這悲傷的消息,就失聲痛哭。

            now that ... V ...

            結構︰now that+主詞+動詞

            說明︰此句型意為“因為/既然…”。now that 是<副詞><連接詞>,that 可省略,意思是 since(因為)或 seeing(that)(既然),引導<副詞子句>,修飾<主要子句>。

                Now that I am free, I can enjoy music for a while.  既然有空,我可以享受一下音樂。

                I want to work now that I am well again.  我想去工作因為我又健康了。

                Now that there is a new tunnel, the road is less dangerous.

            既然有了一個新的隧道,這條路就比較不危險了。

                Now that you are a college student, you should learn to be independent of your parents’ help.

                  既然你已是個大學生了,就應當學著獨立,不靠父母的幫助。

            not ... because ...

            結構︰not ... because ...

            說明︰此句型意為“并非因為…而…”。使用本<句型>時,because 之前不可有逗點,否則意思完全不同;有時得從 because <子句>的邏輯來判斷意思。

                You must not despise a man because he is poor.  你不可因一個人貧窮而輕視他。

                I do not love him because he is rich. (I love him not because he is rich.)

                  我不是因為他有錢才愛他的。

                I do not respect him because he is playful.  我不尊敬他,因為他貪玩。

                I do not respect him because he is knowledgeable.  我并非因為他有學問而尊敬他。

            not that ... but that ...

            結構︰(It is) not that ... but that ...

            說明︰此句型意為“并非…而是…”。It is 通常予以省略。

                Not that I dislike the task, but that I am not equal to it.

                  并非我不喜歡這工作,而是我無法勝任。

                Believe it or not, not that I don’t love Mary, but that I love my country (all the) more.

                  信不信由你,并非我不愛瑪麗,而是我更愛我的國家。

                Not that I hate the work. I’m not strong enough for it.

                  并非我討厭這份工作,而是我不夠強壯,無法勝任。

            so that ... may ...

            結構︰so that/in order that ... may ...

            說明︰此句型意為“以便…”。此為表示目的的<副詞><連接詞> so that,in order that 所引導的<副詞子句> <句型>。so that <子句>總是置于<主要子句>之后,而 in order that 置于<主要子句>前后均可,且<語氣>較為強調。通常使用<助動詞> may,也使用 can(could),shall(should),will(would)等。若<主詞>與<主要子句>相同時,可變成<不定詞詞組>,即“so as to+原形<動詞>”或“in order to+原形<動詞>”。

                Read the questions carefully so that you may not make a mistake in the test.

                  考試時要仔細看清楚題目,以免犯錯。

                We turned on the light so that we might see (=so as to see) what it was.

                  我們把燈打開,以便看看它是什么。

                I study hard, so that I may not fail in the examinations.  我用功,免得考不及格。

                My father works hard in order that he may support us.  我父親辛苦地工作為了養家。

                I’ve decided to learn photography in order that I may better appreciate the beauty of nature.

                  我決定學攝影以便更能欣賞自然的美。

                I came in order that I might/could see May. (=I came in order to see May.)

                  我來是因為能見到梅。

                We must find out the customs of other countries, so that they will not think us ill mannered.

                  我們必須知道別的國家的習俗,免得他們會認為我們是沒有禮貌的。

            lest ... (should) ...

            結構︰lest ... (should) ...

            說明︰此句型意為“以免…”。等于“for fear (that) ... should”。lest 為<副詞><連接詞>,引導<副詞子句>,在該<子句>中,只能用<助動詞> should,但 should 可省略,直接接原形<動詞>。

                I got up early lest I (should) miss the train.  我早起以免錯過了火車。

                We talked in a low voice lest we should wake the baby up. 我們小聲說話以免吵醒嬰兒。

                Hide it lest he (should) see it.  把它藏起來免得他看見。

                He took a flashlight lest it should get dark before he returned.

                  為了預防回來以前天就黑了,所以他帶著手電筒。

                Be careful for fear (that) you should be misunderstood.  請小心點不要被誤會了。

            ... in case ... should ...

            結構︰... in case ... should ...

            說明︰此句型意為“…唯恐…;以防萬一…”。in case 是“唯恐(=lest);萬一(=if)”之意,做<副詞><連接詞>,引導<副詞子句>,與 should 并用,以修飾<主要子句>。in case 置于句首,也可當 if 使用。

                I stopped suddenly in case he should think that I was showing off.

                  我突然停住,唯恐他會認為我是在炫耀。

                They watched him closely in case he should escape. 他們嚴密監視他,惟恐他會逃脫。

                In case (=If) I forget, please remind me.  萬一我忘記,請提醒我。

                Write the telephone number down in case you forget.  把電話號碼寫下來以免忘了。

            ... so ... that ...

            結構︰…so+形容詞/副詞+that…

            說明︰此句型意為“如此…以致…”。此為表示因果關系的<連接詞詞組>,引導<副詞子句>。so 后也可接單數<可數名詞>,即“so+<形容詞>+a+<名詞>+that…”。so 所引導的詞類置于句首時,要采用倒裝句構,如例句5和6。該句型與“too ... to ...”句型可以互相改寫,如例句1所示。

                Kevin is so sick that he can’t come to class. (=Kevin is too sick to come to class.)

                  克文病得嚴重以致無法來上課。

                The dog is so gentle that I am not afraid of it.  這只狗如此溫馴,因此我不感到害怕。

                She studied so hard that she passed the exam.  她這么用功,所以通過了考試。

                He is so good a boy that we like him.  他是個這么好的男孩,所以我們都喜歡他。

                So nice is he that I like him.  他是這么好,因此我喜歡他。

                So exciting was the game that I forgot all about the coming finals.

                  比賽是如此令人興奮,以致我把即將來臨的期末考忘得一乾二凈。

            so many/few ... that ...

            結構︰so many/few+復數名詞+that…

            說明︰此句型意為“如此多/少的…以致…”。若是不可數名詞,則用“so much/little+不可數名詞+that…”。此為表示因果關系的<連接詞詞組>,引導<副詞子句>。so 可修飾表數量的<形容詞> many,much,few,little。so 所引導的詞類置于句首時,要采用倒裝句構。

                I have so much work to do that I can’t go out with you.

            我有這么多工作要做,因此不能和你出去。

                So many languages can he speak that he should have no problem traveling around the world.

                  他會說這么多種語言,因此環游世界毫無問題。

                There is so little time left that I don’t think I can finish it as scheduled.

                  剩下這么少的時間,我想我不能按時完成。

                He has so few friends that his life is lonely.  他的朋友很少,因此他的生活非常孤單。

            such ... that ...

            結構︰such+名詞+that…

            說明︰此句型意為“如此…以致…”。此為表示因果關系的<連接詞詞組>,引導<副詞子句>。such 之后可接任何<名詞>。such 所引導的詞類置于句首時,要采用倒裝句構。

                Do not think that Americans are in such a hurry that they are unfriendly.

                  不要認為美國人如此匆忙是不友善的。

                He always talks in such a way that everyone dislikes him.

                  他總是用這樣得方式說話,所以每個人都討厭他。

                He was such an impatient driver (=He was so impatient a driver) that he went through the red light. 他是這樣沒有耐心的司機,所以他闖紅燈了。

                Such a good article did he write that he won the award.他的這篇文章寫得這么好,因此獲獎。

                They are such good boys that we like them. 他們是這么好的男孩,所以我們都喜歡他們。

                It is such good music that I enjoy it.   這么好的音樂我喜歡。

            as much so as N

            結構︰as much so as+名詞

            說明︰此句型意為“…像…一樣”。

                I am poor - as much so as a church mouse.   我窮得像教堂的老鼠。

                She is lovely - as much so as an angel.  她可愛得像個天使。

                The price of this gem is expensive - as much so as astronomical figures.

                  這個寶石的價格十分昂貴--簡直是個天文數字。

            so much so that ...

            結構︰so much so that+主詞+動詞

            說明︰此句型意為“如此…所以…”。第一個 so 是“如此地”,第二個 so 是<代名詞>,代表前面提過的某一個觀念。

                Making something by hand has become the exception in many countries today - so much so that giving a homemade gift is sometimes considered extraordinary. 當今用手做東西,在許多國家已經成為很特殊--如此地特殊,以致贈送自制禮物有時被認為是不尋常的。

                He is rich-so much so that he can buy anything he wants.

                  他有錢--如此有錢。所以他可以買任何他要的東西。

                Tom is clever-so much so that he can solve most of the problems.

                  湯姆聰明--聰明地可以解決大多數這些問題。

            though/although ...

            結構︰though/although ...

            說明︰此句型意為“雖然…但是…”。though 或 although 均為<副詞><連接詞>,引導<副詞子句>,修飾<主要子句>,可置于<主要子句>的前后。若使用 though 或 although,就不可再使用 but,反之亦然,以避免雙重連接;但可以用 yet,此時的 yet 做<副詞>;though 也可當<副詞>用,置于句尾,但前面要加逗點,表“然而”之意。

                Although (he was) cheerful in company, he was often sad in private.

                  雖然和友人在一起是愉快的,但他私下卻常常很悲傷。

                Though old, he walks as fast as a young man.  雖然年老,他走起路來像年輕人一樣快。

                Though he often plays hooky, he does well in study. 他經常逃學,然而他的功課卻很好。

                Although very rich in his youth, he is now as poor as a church mouse.

                  雖然年輕時很有錢,他現在窮得像教堂的老鼠。

                She didn’t put on an overcoat though it was very cold outside.外頭雖冷,她卻沒披件外套。

                Though he is nice, (yet) I don’t like him. (=He is nice; I don’t like him, though.)

                  他很好,然而我不喜歡他。

            even if/even though ...

            結構︰even if/even though ...

            說明︰此句型意為“即使,雖然…”。也是<副詞><連接詞>,引導<副詞子句>,用法與 though,although 相同,也不可與 but 并用。注意:無 even although 的用法。

                Even if it will take me six weeks, I am determined to finish the job.

                即使這工作要花掉我六個星期的時間,我仍決心要把它完成。

                Even if he said so, you need not believe him.  即使他這么說,你大可不必相信他。

                Even though you do not like it, you must do it. 即使你不喜歡這工作,你也得做。

            Even though he tried, he still lagged behind other runners.

            盡管他努力了,仍落在其他賽跑者之后。

                Even though I hadn’t seen my classmate for many years, I recognized him immediately.

                  即使多年沒有看見我的同學,我也馬上認出了他。

                They couldn’t, even if they would, get out of trouble by themselves.

                  即使他們想(擺脫),也無法獨立擺脫困難。

            Poor as he is, ...

            結構︰形容詞+as+主詞+be 動詞,…

            說明︰此句型意為“雖然…,但是…”。等于“though+<主詞>+be <動詞>+<形容詞>”。

                Poor as he is (=Though he is poor), he doesn’t feel inferior.雖然他窮,他并不覺得低人一等。

                Tired as she was, she kept doing it.  她雖然累了,仍繼續做下去。

                Nice as he is, I don’t like him.  雖然他很好,但我不喜歡他。

                Stern as he is, he is full of sympathy.  雖然他嚴格,卻富有同情心。

                Young as he was, he was prudent. 他雖然如此年輕,卻很慎重。

                Surprised as he was at the news, he kept it secret all the week.

                  這消息雖然令他吃驚,但他卻整個禮拜都沒說出來。

            Hard as he worked, ...

            結構︰副詞(動詞)+as+主詞+動詞,(yet)…

            說明︰此句型意為“雖然…,但是…”。等于“though+<主詞>+<動詞>(+<副詞>)”。

            Hard as he worked (=Though he worked hard), he failed in the exam.

            雖然他很用功,考試仍失敗了。

                Much as she loved him (=Though she loved him very much), he deserted her in the long run.

                  雖然她很愛他,但最后他仍拋棄了她。

                Much as the sheep look alike, the old man can tell one from another.

                  雖然綿羊看起來很相像,但那位老人仍能一一區別。

                Much as I like her, I won’t marry her.   我雖然很喜歡她,卻不打算娶她。

                Well as he does in study, he is not arrogant.  雖然他功課很好,卻一點都不傲慢。

                Much as we may take pride on our good taste, we are no longer free to choose things (that) we want.雖然我們對我們高尚的品味感到非常得意,我們卻不再能自由地去選擇我們所要的東西。

                Much as I hope I may gain weight, (yet) I am still as thin as before.

                  雖然我非常希望增加體重,但我仍然像以前一樣的瘦。

                Fast as you do, you can’t finish the assignment in two hours.

                  盡管你做得快,總也不能在兩小時內將功課做完。

                Search as I would, I could not find the book.  無論我怎么找,也沒有找到書。

                Try as you might, you can’t keep the lost time. 不管你怎么努力,失去的時間無法趕上。

                Munching the apple as he was, he had an eye for all her movements.

                  他雖然啃著蘋果,但卻很留神地監視著她的每一個動作。

            Good student as he is, ...

            結構︰名詞+as+主詞+be 動詞,…

            說明︰此句型意為“雖然…,但是…”。等于“though+<主詞>+be <動詞>+<名詞>”。若 be <動詞>之后的<名詞>是單數,移至句首后<冠詞>要省略。

                Good students as they were (=Though they were good students), they sometimes erred.

                  雖然他們是好學生,偶而也會犯錯。

                Good student as he is (=Though he is a good student), he sometimes makes mistakes.

                  雖然他是好學生,偶而也會犯錯。

                Coward as he is (=Though he is a coward), he can’t bear such an insult.

                   雖然他是懦夫,卻無法忍受這樣的侮辱。

            Try as you may, ...

            結構︰原形動詞+as/though+主詞+may,…

            說明︰此句型意為“雖然…,但是…”。等于“though+<主詞>+may+原形<動詞>”;此類變化僅限于句中有<助動詞> may 時。

            Try as he may (=Though he may try), he will definitely fail.

            雖然他會嘗試去做,但無疑他必失敗。

                Try as she may, she is not necessarily able to talk him out of smoking.

                  雖然她會嘗試,卻未必能說服他戒煙。

                Try as you may, you will find it impossible to solve the problem.

                  雖然你會嘗試,但你會發現要解決這個問題是不可能的。

            whether ... or ...

            結構︰whether ... or ...

            說明︰此句型意為“不論是…還是…”。whether 引導的<子句>句尾可用<對等連接詞> or,以連接對等的單字、<詞組>。whether <子句>中的<主詞>若與<主要子句>相同時,則該<主詞>可省略;whether <子句>的句構若為“<主詞>+be <動詞>+<補語>”,而<補語>又對稱時,則可保留“<補語>+or+<補語>”,其余部分則省略。

                Whether he will stay or leave, I really don’t care.  我真的不在意他要留下來還是要走。

                Whether the news is true or false, I won’t change my plan.

                  不管消息是真是假,我是不會改變計劃的。

                Whether (she is) sick or fine, she is always cheerful. 不管她生不生病,她總是開開心心的。

                (Whether we are) Rich or poor, we are all equal.  人不分貧富一律平等。

                Rain or shine, the game will be held as scheduled. 不論下不下雨,比賽照常舉行。

            Waking or sleeping, the matter is always in my mind.

            不論是醒著還是睡著,這件事時常浮在我的腦中。

            whether ... or not

            結構︰whether+主詞+動詞+or not

            說明︰此句型意為“不論…還是不…”。“whether ... or not”稱為<從屬連接詞>,連接詞性相同的單字,<詞組>或<子句>,當“whether ... or ...”<句型>中的 or 之后對等的單字或<詞組>若相同時,該單字或<詞組>可省略,而以 not 代替;or not 也可省略;也可寫成 whether or not。

                There’s always weather, weather, whether we like it or not.

                  老是有各種各樣的天氣,不論我們喜歡不喜歡。

                Whether you will go (or not), please call me up.  不論你去不去,請打電話給我。

                Whether he will come (or not), we will go on with our plan.

                  不管他來不來,我們仍按原計劃進行。

                I have decided to buy a bicycle, whether it is expensive or not.

                  我已經決定買一部腳踏車,不論貴不貴。

                Whether you believe it or not, I passed the exam. 不管你信不信,反正我通過了考試。

                Whether he wanted it or not, he had to attend the lecture.

                  不管他愿意與否,他非得去參加講座。

                Whether or not he will stay, I really don’t care. 他要留下來還是要走,我真的不在意。

                He is always happy whether rich or not. 不管窮還是富,他都快活。

            ... or otherwise

            結構︰形容詞+or otherwise

            說明︰此句型意為“(不論)…或不…”。otherwise 表示和<形容詞>相反的意義。

                Two characters are in disagreement, serious or otherwise, over some matter.

                  兩個人物為某件事情發生了嚴重或不嚴重的沖突。

                You must accept the result, satisfactory or otherwise.

                  你必須接受這個令人滿意或不滿意的結果。

                The task assigned, dangerous or otherwise, must be finished as scheduled.

                  所指派的工作,危險或不危險,必須如期完成。

            as ... V ...

            結構︰as+主詞+動詞…

            說明︰此句型意為“按照…;如…”。as 是<副詞><連接詞>,等于“in the same way that”。

                When in Rome, do as the Romans do.   入境隨俗。

                Do as you are told. (=Do as I tell you.)   照我吩咐的做!

                She cooks omelets in butter as they do in France.   她用奶油做法國式的蛋卷。

            As it is ...

            結構︰As it is ...

            說明︰此句型意為“事實上…”。As it is ... 作<副詞子句>,置于句首,修飾后面的<主要子句>。等于 In fact 或 As a matter of fact。

                I thought he would get better. As it is, he is getting worse.

                  我以為他會變好。但事實上,他愈變愈糟。

                He isn’t nice. As it is, he is bad.   他不好。事實上,他很壞。

                I don’t like him. As it is, I hate him.   我不喜歡他。事實上,我恨他。

            as/so long as ...

            結構︰as/so long as ...

            說明︰此句型意為“只要…”。as/so long as 當“只要”解,是表條件及時間范圍的<連接詞詞組>,引導 <副詞子句>,修飾<主要子句>。它所引導的<子句>中,<動詞>常用現在式,<主要子句>則用未來式。

                You will never be good students so long as you goof around.

                  如果你們成天游手好閑,就永遠也成不了好學生。

                As long as you drive carefully, you will be very safe. 只要你開車小心,你就會很安全。

                You may eat anything, so long as you don’t eat too much.

                  只要不吃得太多,你可以吃任何東西。

                As long as live, I will help you.   只要我活著,我都會幫助你。

                As long as you don’t betray me, I’ll do whatever you ask me to (do).

                  只要你不出賣我,要我做什么我都愿意。

                We’ll ship the goods at an early time as long as there is a steamer.只要有船,我們就盡早裝貨。

            So far as I am concerned

            結構︰so/as far as+主詞+be+concerned…

            說明︰此句型意為“就…而言,…”。為<副詞><連接詞詞組>,引導<副詞子句>,通常置于<主要子句>之前。

                So far as English is concerned, it is not so difficult as you might think.

                  就英文而言,它并不像你所認為的那樣難。

                As far as I am concerned, I’m not against your plan.  就我而言,我并不反對你的計劃。

                So far as English composition is concerned, practice is the best way.

                  就英語作文而言,練習是最好的方法。

                As far as defense is concerned, we need to buy more sophisticated weapons.

                  就防御的觀點來說,我們需要購買更多精密的武器。

                As far as I know, he is kind.   就我所知,他人不錯。

                As far as oil energy is concerned, we cannot be too frugal.就石油能源而言,我們愈節省愈好。

            whatever may happen, ...

            結構︰whatever+(名詞)+主詞+may+原形動詞…

            說明︰此句型意為“不論什么…”。whatever 在此做<副詞><連接詞>,引導<副詞子句>,后面一定要有逗點,再接<主要子句>。“whatever+<主詞>+may be”的 may be 可以省略。

                You must do whatever is best for you.   什么對你最有利你就得做什么。

                He’ll push on with his project whatever the difficulties may be.

                  不管有什么困難,他都要繼續推行他的計劃。

                Whatever may happen, you must keep calm.  不論什么事發生,你必須保持冷靜。

                I will be on your side, whatever the situation (may be).  我會在你這一邊,不論情況如何。

                We are still optimistic, whatever the result (may be).   我們仍然樂觀,不論結果如何。

            No matter what ...

            結構︰No matter what ...

            說明︰此句型意為“不論什么…,…”。

                No matter what the results of the homemade gift look like, remember it’s the thought that counts.   不論自制禮物的結果看起來像什么,心意才是重要。

                No matter what you may do, do it well.   不論你做什么,好好地做。

                No matter what he is, he must obey the law.   不論他是什么人,他必須遵守法律。

            wherever ...

            結構︰wherever+主詞+動詞…

            說明︰此句型意為“無論在哪里…;無論到哪里…;無論什么情況下…”。等于 no matter where。

                The language is almost the same wherever one goes. 不論你到哪里,語言幾乎是相同的。

                Wherever you are, I will miss you.   不論你在哪里,我都會想念你。

                Remember you are a Chinese wherever you go.  記住你是中國人,不論你到哪里。

                We’ll go wherever you like.  你愛去哪兒我們就去哪兒。

                Wherever it is possible, he tries to help.  只要有可能,他總是設法幫忙。

            not ... until/till ...

            結構︰not…until/till+某一點時間

            說明︰此句型意為“直到…才…”。等于“not ... before”。句子若由 not until 開頭,則要用倒裝<句型>。

                Cotton material was not known in Europe until much later.

            直到很晚之后,歐洲才知道棉花布料。

                We did not start until the sun rose in the east.   直到太陽從東方升起,我們才出發。

                He did not have a house of his own until he was thirty.直到三十歲,他才有屬于自己的家。

                Not until eleven o’clock did he come home.   他到十一點才回家。

                We do not know the value of health till we lose it.  失去健康才知道健康的可貴。

                We had not waited long before she came.  我們沒等多久她就來了。

                Not until last night did I get the news.  直到昨晚我才聽到這消息。

                It had not been done before he came.  這還沒做完之前他就回來了。

            ... rather than ...

            結構︰主詞+動詞…rather than…

            說明︰此句型意為“與其說…,不如說…;…而不是…”。rather than 后所跟的部分可以有多種詞性和<時態>,關鍵是要和前半部分保持一致。

                Older people may seek their own friends rather than become too emotionally dependent on their children. 老年人可以找自己的朋友而不會在情感上太依賴他們的子女。

                She is a career woman rather than a housewife.  她是職業婦女而不是家庭主婦。

                I tried to stand on my own two feet rather than turned to my parents.

                  我設法自立而不求助于我的父母。

                He will give in to his opponent’s claim rather than wrangle over a disputed point.

                  他會向對手的要求讓步,而不會因爭議點而大聲爭論。

                She is pretty rather than attractive.   她是漂亮,而不吸引人。

                I reasoned rather than quarreled with him.  我理論,而不是和他吵架。

                It is a telex rather than a letter.   與其說它是一封信,不如說它是一封電傳。

                This businessman is rather diligent than clever.  與其說這位業務員聰明,不如說他勤勉。

                The present market is worse rather than better. 目前的市場不見好轉,反而進一步惡化了。

                He should have given priority to his safety rather than to the loss of money.

                  他本來應該優先考慮他的安全,而不是金錢的損失。

                He always give priority to others rather than to himself.他總是優先考慮別人而不是自己本身。

            On one hand, ...

            結構︰On (the) one hand, ..., and on the other (hand), ...

            說明︰此句型意為“一方面…,另一方面…”。本<句型>指同一事物的兩個方面。on the one hand 和 and on the other,一般是作<插入語>,前后要用逗點隔開,on the other hand 如在句末,則不必在前加逗點。注意,如第一部分里沒有<定冠詞> the,就不作<插入語>。

                On the one hand, you shouldn’t be shy; on the other hand, you mustn’t forget your manners.

                  一方面你不應當拘束,另一方面也不要放肆無禮。

                On the one hand, I am your manager, and on the other, I am also your friend.

                  一方面我是你的經理,另一方面,我也是你的朋友。

                He has been criticized on one hand and encouraged on the other.

                  他一方面受到批評,另一方面卻受到鼓勵。

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